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Justice Policy Journal - Volume 13, Number 2 - Fall 2016


Impact of Caregiver Arrest on Minor Children: Implications for Use of Family Impact Statements in U.S. Courts*

By James M. Conway, Ashley J. Provencher, Aileen Keays Yeager

Sentencing decisions for caregivers rarely consider the potential damage imposed on their minor children due to lost income, child care, and instrumental and emotional support. Family impact statements can be an effective tool for informing such decision-making. The present study explored the needs created in children’s lives by surveying 45 caregivers at arraignment in a U.S. state superior court regarding their 108 children. Caregivers, regardless of sex or living arrangement, reported providing monetary and non-monetary supports (e.g., direct care, help with homework, transportation) to children in the month prior to their arrest. These findings suggest that children experience significant loss of support following the sentencing of a caregiver, and underscore the potential benefits of utilizing family impact statements at sentencing.

*Table 3 edited on Jan. 14, 2017.


Adult Earnings of Juvenile Delinquents: The Interaction of Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Juvenile Justice Status on Future Earnings

By Melanie Taylor 

It has long been recognized that Whites and males have higher incomes than non-Whites and females. The U.S. Census Bureau recently reported that White males have the highest incomes, while Hispanic females have the lowest incomes in comparison to other racial and ethnic groups. Research also shows that those who were involved in the juvenile and criminal justice systems have lower wages than those with no system contact, but it remains unclear how this varies based upon race, ethnicity, and gender. The current study explores the relationship between race/ethnicity, gender, and juvenile justice system involvement on future earnings using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. Findings suggest that system-involved White and Hispanic males earn more than most other groups, even non-delinquents. In contrast, system-involved Black males have similar incomes to females. These findings indicate that only certain types of juvenile delinquents experience reduced wages in adulthood.


Restorative Justice in the States: An Analysis of Statutory Legislation and Policy

Sandra Pavelka 

Two distinct models have guided justice systems in recent decades – individual treatment/rehabilitation and retributive justice. The organizational mission and goals of the justice system have become internally inconsistent as these systems attempt to satisfy competing goals, such as punishment, rehabilitation and community safety. As such, lawmakers and justice system administrators seek to clarify the aims of justice management and policy, while exploring possibilities for the future of the justice system. Legislators and justice system administrators have reformed their juvenile justice agenda from punitive actions to a means that provides responses to crime and wrongful occurrences by developing and implementing restorative legislation and policies. Restorative justice seeks to balance the needs of the victim, offender and community by repairing the harm caused by delinquent acts. This research finds that a majority of states have incorporated restorative justice in statute or code that include general provisions and intent, practices, funding, and evaluation. The state of Colorado, which notably employs principles of restorative justice in legislation and practice, is also examined as a case study in this article. Future perspectives, including vision, degree of restorativeness, funding, and performance measures are also addressed.


Keywords: children of incarcerated parents, collateral consequences, disparity, ethnicity, family impact statements, gender, income, income inequality, Juvenile justice, race, race/ethnicity, rehabilitation, restorative justice, sentencing, wages

Posted in Volume 13, Justice Policy Journal

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