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(ISSN 1530 – 3012)

From the editor

By Elizabeth Brown, Ph.D. and Randall G. Shelden, M.A., Ph.D.

From the Editors 

Once again it is time for another issue of Justice Policy Journal. This issue contains a trio of excellent policy-related articles on the topics of drunk drivers, female sex offenders and re-entry.

First, we have Michael Hallstone and The Criminal History of So-Called Hard Core’ Drinking Drivers.” In this study Hallstone sheds some much needed light into the question of this relatively small group of hard core” drunk drivers with a study that included arrest and criminal history data on a random sample of 410 drunk drivers (DUI) in Hawaii. The goal was to determine whether hard core” drunk drivers did in fact have extensive criminal histories, exclusive of DUI and other traffic offenses, than other drunk drivers. Being a hard core” drunk driver is correlated with a greater number of misdemeanors and convictions, but has not effect on felony or petty misdemeanor convictions. This group is in fact more criminally inclined.

In Do Societal Reactions Lead to Increased Experiences of Shame and Strain for Registered Female Sex Offenders?” Jennifer Klein and her co-authors addressed the rarely examined issue of registered female sex offenders and in particular how they experienced the shame of such a status. Their study was based upon a sample of 106 such offenders in the state of Florida. They found that these women experienced multiple negative reactions such as job loss, loss of residence, harassment (both in person and over the phone and mail) because of their status as a sex offender which in turn led to greater levels of shame.

Finally, in Reintegrative Community Service Teams: Developing Key Practice Dimensions of the Civic Engagement Model of Offender Reentry” Megan Glavin examined a relatively recent program for released prisoners called Reintegrative Community Service Teams.” The objectives of this program include reparation provided to communities through service; changes in the offender’s personal and public image; the offender’s development of relationships characterized by guardianship and social support; an increase in the offender’s skills and job readiness as a consequence of service; and whether service contributes toward community efficacy.” This program is based in part upon a model known as Civic Justice Corps” proposed by Gordon Bazemore and others.

Happy reading!Elizabeth Brown and Randall Shelden

The Criminal History of So-Called Hard Core” Drinking Drivers

By Michael Hallstone 

Although considerable attention has been given to the criminality of repeat drunk drivers multivariate analyses that control for other variables are absent in the literature. Furthermore, despite claims of increased criminality amongst so-called hard core drinking drivers” investigations using a strict definition of the concept are also nonexistent. Arrest and criminal history data were used from an ethnically diverse random sample of drunk driver (DUI) arrestees (n=411) in Hawaii to determine whether hard core drinking drivers had more extensive criminal histories, exclusive of DUI and other traffic offenses, than other drunk drivers. A multivariate analysis that controlled for age, gender, ethnicity, and employment found that being a hard core drinking driver increased the total number of convictions (regardless of severity) and misdemeanor convictions, but not felony convictions and petty misdemeanor/​violation convictions. Age and unemployment had a positive effect, while gender and ethnicity were statistically insignificant, in all models. Theoretical implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.

Reintegrative Community Service Teams: Developing Key Practice Dimensions of the Civic Engagement Model of Offender Reentry

By Megan Glavin 

Offenders re-entering society after a period of incarceration face formidable challenges, as legal barriers and societal stigma often prevent those with criminal records from securing adequate housing, employment and other critical resources. In response, many states are re-examining systemic impediments, and researchers have begun to explore the critical role that community acceptance may have in facilitating offender reintegration. Bazemore and Stinchcomb’s civic engagement model proposes that the performance of meaningful community service by offenders could: foster prosocial identity change; produce redemptive proofs; demonstrate offender competency; re-build community trust and engender public acceptance of the formerly incarcerated; and ultimately lead to legitimate job and educational opportunities. In addition, the positive social bonds that are formed as a result of community involvement may function as informal social controls for the offender (reducing the likelihood of recidivism). Bazemore and Karp have extended this theoretical model by proposing a Civic Justice Corps” (CJC), which argues for offender community service as a reintegration policy. The CJC is now a U.S. Department of Labor grant program providing funding to organizations and agencies that seek to assist previously incarcerated youth (aged 18 – 24) in successful reintegration through educational and community service initiatives. However, the CJC could potentially be expanded to include older offenders, those who have been incarcerated longer, and offenders with other unique needs through the implementation of a structurally compact and flexible program model. This framework is described in the format of a new proposal — a recommendation for the establishment of reintegrative community service teams (RCST).

Do Societal Reactions Lead to Increased Experiences of Shame and Strain for Registered Female Sex Offenders?

By Jennifer Klein, Joseph Rukus, and Katheryne Zambrana 

Currently, there is limited research on registered female sex offenders compared to males. However, research suggests differences do exist, making exclusively female sex offender research important. A mail-out survey collected 106 responses, addressing Reintegrative Shaming and General Strain Theories, experiences resulting from the participants’ known sex offender statuses and their perceptions of the Florida registry. We hypothesize that as females encounter more collateral consequences from registration, the amount of shame and strain felt will increase. The results show as anticipated, the proposed relationship between collateral consequence experiences and increased shame and strain is indeed present. Policy implications and conclusions are discussed.